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太陽能發電蓄電池容量計算方法

發布者:天華機械 發布日(ri)期:2018-09-18

太(tai)陽(yang)能發(fa)電蓄(xu)電池容量(liang)的計算方法 
 
一、概述 
地(di)球上各地(di)區(qu)(qu)受太陽光照(zhao)射(she)及輻射(she)能(neng)變(bian)(bian)化的(de)周期(qi)(qi)為(wei)一(yi)天(tian)(tian)(tian)24h。處(chu)在某一(yi)地(di)區(qu)(qu)的(de)太陽能(neng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池方陣(zhen)的(de)發(fa)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)也(ye)有24h的(de)周期(qi)(qi)性(xing)的(de)變(bian)(bian)化,其規(gui)律與太陽照(zhao)在該地(di)區(qu)(qu)輻射(she)的(de)變(bian)(bian)化規(gui)律相同。但(dan)是(shi)天(tian)(tian)(tian)氣的(de)變(bian)(bian)化將影響方陣(zhen)的(de)發(fa)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)(liang)(liang)。如果有幾天(tian)(tian)(tian)連續陰雨(yu)天(tian)(tian)(tian),方陣(zhen)就幾乎(hu)不能(neng)發(fa)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),只能(neng)靠蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池來(lai)供(gong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),而蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池深度放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)后又需盡快(kuai)地(di)將其補(bu)充好(hao)。設計者多數(shu)以氣象臺提供(gong)的(de)太陽每天(tian)(tian)(tian)總(zong)(zong)的(de)輻射(she)能(neng)量(liang)(liang)(liang)或每年的(de)日(ri)(ri)照(zhao)時數(shu)的(de)平均(jun)值(zhi)作為(wei)設計的(de)主要數(shu)據。由(you)于(yu)一(yi)個地(di)區(qu)(qu)各年的(de)數(shu)據不相同,為(wei)可靠起(qi)見應取近十年內的(de)最小數(shu)據。根據負載的(de)耗電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)情(qing)況,在日(ri)(ri)照(zhao)和無日(ri)(ri)照(zhao)時,均(jun)需用蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池供(gong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。氣象臺提供(gong)的(de)太陽能(neng)總(zong)(zong)輻射(she)量(liang)(liang)(liang)或總(zong)(zong)日(ri)(ri)照(zhao)時數(shu)對決定蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池的(de)容量(liang)(liang)(liang)大小是(shi)不可缺(que)少的(de)數(shu)據。 
對太陽能電池方陣(zhen)而言,負載應包括(kuo)系統中所有(you)耗電裝(zhuang)置(除用(yong)電器(qi)外還有(you)蓄電池及線路、控制器(qi)等)的耗量。  
方陣的(de)(de)(de)(de)輸出功率與組(zu)件串(chuan)并(bing)聯(lian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)數(shu)量有(you)關,串(chuan)聯(lian)是為了獲(huo)得所需(xu)(xu)(xu)要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工作(zuo)(zuo)電壓,并(bing)聯(lian)是為了獲(huo)得所需(xu)(xu)(xu)要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工作(zuo)(zuo)電流,適當數(shu)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)組(zu)件經過串(chuan)并(bing)聯(lian)即組(zu)成所需(xu)(xu)(xu)要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)太陽能電池方陣。 
二、蓄(xu)電池(chi)組容量(liang)設(she)計 
  太(tai)陽能(neng)(neng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源系統(tong)的(de)儲能(neng)(neng)裝置主要(yao)是蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)。與太(tai)陽能(neng)(neng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)方(fang)(fang)陣(zhen)配套(tao)的(de)蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)通常工作在(zai)浮充狀(zhuang)態下,其(qi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓隨(sui)方(fang)(fang)陣(zhen)發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)和負(fu)載用(yong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)的(de)變化(hua)而變化(hua)。它的(de)容(rong)量(liang)比負(fu)載所需的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)大得多。蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)提供的(de)能(neng)(neng)量(liang)還受環(huan)境溫度的(de)影響。為了與太(tai)陽能(neng)(neng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)匹配,要(yao)求蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)工作壽命(ming)長且維護簡單。 1.蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)選用(yong) 
  能(neng)(neng)(neng)夠和太陽能(neng)(neng)(neng)電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)配套(tao)使用(yong)的(de)(de)蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)種類(lei)很多(duo),目前廣泛采用(yong)的(de)(de)有鉛(qian)酸(suan)(suan)免(mian)維(wei)護(hu)(hu)蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)、普(pu)通(tong)鉛(qian)酸(suan)(suan)蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)和堿性(xing)(xing)鎳鎘蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)三種。國內(nei)目前主要(yao)使用(yong)鉛(qian)酸(suan)(suan)免(mian)維(wei)護(hu)(hu)蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi),因(yin)為其固有的(de)(de)“免(mian)”維(wei)護(hu)(hu)特(te)性(xing)(xing)及對環境較少污染(ran)的(de)(de)特(te)點,很適合用(yong)于性(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)可(ke)靠的(de)(de)太陽能(neng)(neng)(neng)電(dian)(dian)源系統,特(te)別是(shi)無人值守的(de)(de)工作站(zhan)。普(pu)通(tong)鉛(qian)酸(suan)(suan)蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)由于需要(yao)經(jing)常(chang)維(wei)護(hu)(hu)及其環境污染(ran)較大,所(suo)以主要(yao)適于有維(wei)護(hu)(hu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)力或低檔場(chang)(chang)合使用(yong)。堿性(xing)(xing)鎳鎘蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)雖然(ran)有較好的(de)(de)低溫、過(guo)充、過(guo)放(fang)性(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng),但由于其價(jia)格較高(gao),僅(jin)適用(yong)于較為特(te)殊的(de)(de)場(chang)(chang)合。 2.蓄電(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)組容(rong)量(liang)的(de)(de)計算 
  蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)的容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)對(dui)保證連續供電(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)很重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)的。在一年內(nei),方陣發電(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)(liang)各月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen)有(you)很大差別(bie)。方陣的發電(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)(liang)在不(bu)能(neng)滿足用電(dian)(dian)(dian)需要(yao)(yao)的月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen),要(yao)(yao)靠蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)的電(dian)(dian)(dian)能(neng)給以補足;在超過(guo)用電(dian)(dian)(dian)需要(yao)(yao)的月(yue)(yue)份(fen)(fen),是(shi)靠蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)將(jiang)多余的電(dian)(dian)(dian)能(neng)儲(chu)存(cun)起來(lai)。所以方陣發電(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)(liang)的不(bu)足和過(guo)剩值,是(shi)確定蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)(liang)的依據(ju)。

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